Evaluation of the effectiveness of propolis and garlic in the management of Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) in stored Maize (Zea mays) grainsAbstract :
The study evaluated the efficacy of garlic powder and propolis extracts at controlling Sitophilus zeamais infestation in stored maize grains. One hundred grammes of maize grains were weighed into 250 cm3 jars. The grains were seperately mixed with 1 g, 3 g and 5 g garlic powder and 5 %, 10 % and 15 % propolis extract. The treated grains were infested with 5 pairs of 1-10 day old S. zeamais and left for 90 days. Each treatment was replicated four times and arranged on work table in the laboratory using Complete Randomized Design. The untreated grains (control) had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher number of S. zeamais, % weight loss, % grain damage and % weight of grain powder. All the treated grains had 100 % adult mortality of S. zeamais at all treatment levels. The % grain damage, % grain weight loss, weight of grain powder and number of S. zeamais were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the garlic powder and propolis extract -treated maize grains compared to the untreated ones. Propolis extract at 15 % concentration had the lowest grain weight loss followed by maize grains treated with 3 g garlic powder. Garlic powder and propolis extract could be used to control infestation in maize grains to overcome draw-backs associated with the use of synthetic insecticides.
Garlic, propolis, infestation, Sitophilus zeamais, synthetic insecticide.